¶ 1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 Beginning in 1920 with the Pilgrim Tercentenary, commemorative stamp subjects were moving away from advertising world’s fairs as the UPSOD began celebrating battles, anniversaries, and individuals. These stamps were not the first attempts at shaping America’s founding mythologies, as we saw with the Columbians (1892-93) and the Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition (1907) that celebrated discoveries and settlements of lands that would become the United States. The Pilgrim Tercentennial was a national celebration in that began in December 1920 and continued into the summer of 1921. Pageants and parades were held in many states, and the events in Massachusetts were covered in newspapers across the country.1
¶ 2 Leave a comment on paragraph 2 0 Poems and speeches glorified the legacy of the Massachusetts pilgrims as nation builders and model immigrants. Plymouth was proclaimed to be the “corner stone of the Nation,” by Mayflower descendent Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, who detailed how the pilgrims’ success against adversity allowed for America to grow into a great nation.2 Vice President Thomas Marshall also touted the achievements of the “pilgrim fathers” who “prepared the way” for “the birth of a new and mighty world.” He used the opportunity to argue for immigration restrictions advocating that immigrants needed to follow the example set by pilgrims and commit to staying in US rather than merely coming to work and returning home. According to Marshall, the pilgrims came to America “to worship God and to make homes, determined never to return to Europe.”3 Politicians and patriotic-hereditary groups used a perceived legacy of the Plymouth pilgrims in the early twentieth century not only to assert the primacy of Plymouth as America’s birth place, but also to speak to local and national concerns over immigration and labor.
¶ 3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 The tercentenary committee promoted the pilgrims’ legacy as first founders, evident in the stamps chosen to commemorate the celebration. Interestingly, none of the three postage stamps printed in the series contained the identifying words, “U.S. Postage,” which all other stamps prior and since carried. This cemented the story of the pilgrims’ landing at Plymouth as quintessentially American, and that group the collective cultural ancestors of all citizens. Even the U.S. Mint’s commemorative anniversary coin imprinted the words “United States of America” on the front of the half-dollar coin.4
¶ 5 Leave a comment on paragraph 5 0 Philatelists noticed this omission, concerned—and interested—that it might be an error in the printing, but the USPOD did not recall the stamps since the design was intentional. American Philatelist editors were disappointed with the series, claiming that the 2- and 5-cent issues were far too crowded with figures and decoration to be enjoyed.5
¶ 6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 Mayflowers, fittingly, flanked each stamp’s scene, and like the Columbians, the Pilgrim Tercentenary series formed a short narrative. The story began on the 1-cent stamp with the Mayflower sailing west across the ocean on its journey with no land in sight—origin or destination.
¶ 8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0 Similar to the Columbians, the landing occurs in the 2-cent stamp, which was the most commonly used since it was the standard rate of first-class postage from 1883 to 1932.6 This stamp’s engraving makes the landing look harsh, unexpected, and jolting for the party at Plymouth Rock. Men, women, and children huddled together indicating the family units who migrated. Although this image suggests that struggles lie ahead for the settlers, the rock is what grounded the travelers, and is the object that grounded those celebrating the anniversary in the past. Plymouth was the ceremonial ground in 1920 and provided the physical connection to the past events.
¶ 10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 The journey’s symbolic end revealed itself in the 5-cent where the Mayflower Compact was signed indicating permanence, and importantly showing the evidence of the first document of self-governance in what would become the United States. Divine right blessed this settlement as the central figure pointed towards the light illuminating the signing. Drawn from a painting by Edwin White, the signing image illustrates families migrating together even though only men signed the document.7 The scene emphasizes that there was a community, comprised of family units, who crafted the Mayflower Compact and pledged to work together.
¶ 12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0 At the time of the tercentenary, New England preservationists and genealogists argued that the Plymouth pilgrims were the true first Americans because family units arrived together to form a permanent settlement, unlike the commercially-mind individuals who sailed to Jamestown. By representing this scene, the Tercentennial committee reiterated their argument and wanted all Americans to center Plymouth as the birthplace of the America.
¶ 13 Leave a comment on paragraph 13 0 Virginians and New Englanders regularly argued over the true origins of the American story and which settlements contributed more to the development and character of the United States. Post-Civil War regional tensions can be read in written evidence found in newspapers and journals such the William and Mary Quarterly. In 1909, shortly after the tercentenary celebration of Jamestown’s founding, Virginian historians refuted declarations published by members of the New England Historic Genealogical Society that there were “radical differences of character and influence” between Mayflower descendants and Jamestown settlers, because Plymouth “subordinated the commercial spirit (of Jamestown) to that of securing ecclesiastical and political freedom for themselves”—seen in the 5-cent. WMQ responded that those charges were “so gross, so unprovoked, so untrue,” and the statement of such freedoms and strength of character in the north were exaggerated.8
¶ 14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 0 Rivalries die hard, and Virginians did not let the Pilgrim Tercentenary pass without reminding Americans of their claim to the origins and contributions to the American politics and governance. One address given at the College of William and Mary noted that Virginia’s contributions to the forming of the United States were far greater than any other state, but that Massachusetts came in second place, in an effort to remind Americans that the “first” settlement was at Jamestown.9 No one at this time, of course, argued on behalf of the original residents of “America”—the native peoples who were displaced, attacked, manipulated, and feared by European colonizers.
- ¶ 16 Leave a comment on paragraph 16 0
For examples of states planning activities see, Benjamin Roland Lewis, Pageantry and the Pilgrim Tercentenary Celebration (1620-1920) with Sample Pilgrim Pageants,suggestions for Programs, Bibliographies, Etc., for the State of Utah (Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah, 1920), available, from Hathi Trust: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/loc.ark:/13960/t6vx0qb15. For reporting of the events, see Chronicling America, http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/search/pages/results/?date1=1836&rows=20&searchType=basic&state=&date2=1922&proxtext=pilgrim+tercentenary&y=0&x=0&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1&sort=relevance ↩
¶ 19 Leave a comment on paragraph 19 0 Brody, “Pilgrim Tercentenary Issue.” To view an image of the commemorative coin, see <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pilgrim_tercentenary_half_dollar_commemorative_obverse.jpg> ↩
¶ 21 Leave a comment on paragraph 21 0 Jane Kennedy, “Development of Postal Rates: 1845-1955,” Land Economics 33, no. 2 (May 1957): 96.; and Andrew K. Dart,“The History of Postage Rates in the United States since 1863,” September 26, 2008 (http://www.akdart.com/postrate.html). First-class postage temporarily increased to 3-cents from 1917-1918 during American involvement in World War I. ↩
¶ 22 Leave a comment on paragraph 22 0 The 5-cent, “Signing of the Compact” stamp, is a miniature engraving based on an Edwin White painting from 1858. William Bradford may have been the main figure in this painting, since he is pictured in the U.S. Mint’s half-dollar commemorative coin also issued for this anniversary. White specialized in American historical painting, including Washington Resigning His Commission which was commissioned to hang in the Maryland State House. To see a copy of Washington Resigning his Commission, see http://www.msa.md.gov/msa/speccol/sc1500/sc1545/e_catalog_2002/white.html. ↩
¶ 23 Leave a comment on paragraph 23 0 “Jamestown and Plymouth,” The William and Mary Quarterly 17, no. 4 (April 1909): 305–311. Interestingly, this piece ends with a nod of middle ground by specifically pointing to the “present enlightened North” who condemned the “ruinous” policies of Reconstruction, signaling that there was hope in settling these sectional disputes around the fictional “natural law” of white supremacy—made visible in many cultural articles in post-Reconstruction US. ↩